Friday, August 15, 2014

Using Routing Functions in SIMATIC

Do you know that you can access devices connected on different networks from the PG/PC without switching your physical connection. 

For Example, you can download / upload programs from devices connected on a PROFIBUS network even if your PG/PC is connected on a PROFINET network of the same system or vice versa. This feature can be extremely useful for example for commissioning of HMI panels and Drives which may be connected on PROFIBUS while the engineering station is connected on PROFINET.


S7 Routing is the transfer of data beyond network boundaries. In this case you can send data from a sender to a receiver over various networks.

S7 Routing is possible over PROFINET and PROFIBUS subnets. With the PG/PC you can reach devices over and beyond subnet limits in order to do the following, for example:
  • Download user programs
  • Download a hardware configuration
  • Execute test and diagnostic functions
  • Commissioning of Drives and other slave devices.
Requirements for S7 Routing
  • The CPUs, CMs and CPs  support routing.
  • All accessible devices in a network have been configured and downloaded in STEP 7 in one project.
  • All the devices associated with the gateway must receive information about which subnets can be reached over which routes (= routing information). The devices receive the routing information through downloading the hardware configuration in the CPUs.
    In the case of a topology with several subnets you must keep to the following order when downloading. First you download the hardware configuration into the CPU(s), which are connected to the same subnet as the PG/PC; then you download the CPUs of the other subnets one after the other starting with the nearest subnet through to the most distant.
  • The PG/PC with which you wish to set up a connection through a gateway must be assigned to the subnet to which it is physically connected.
  • For PROFIBUS subnets: The CPU must either be configured as a DP master or if it is configured as DP slave, the check box "Test, commissioning and routing" must be checked in the Properties of the DP interface of the DP slave.
SIMATIC S7 CPUsThe list below gives an overview of the SIMATIC S7 CPUs that support the S7 Routing function.
584459_Overview_CPUs_en.pdf ( 7 KB )
Communications processors (CPs)The list below gives an overview of the PROFIBUS and Industrial Ethernet CPs that support the S7 Routing function.
584459_Overview_CPs_en.pdf ( 16 KB ) 

How to use Routing Functions in SIMATIC :

The following requirements must be fulfilled for the "Routing" function with SIMATIC S7 modules via MPI, PROFIBUS and Industrial Ethernet connections:

Software requirements:
  • MPI and PROFIBUS connections:
  • At least STEP 7 V5.0+SP1, however a current version of STEP 7 is recommended.
  • For the Softnet PROFIBUS cards (CP 5411 (ISA), CP 5511 (PCMCIA), CP 5611 (PCI), CP 5611 (on board)) you don't need any other drivers, because they are provided by STEP 7.
  • For the Hardnet PROFIBUS cards (CP 5412(A2) (ISA), CP 5613/5614 (PCI)) you need the associated drivers from the SIMATIC NET CD.
  • Industrial Ethernet connections:
  • At least STEP 7 V5.0+SP1, however a current version of STEP 7 is recommended.
  • With CP1612/ CP1512 ,CP1515 and commercially available network cards you need a current release of the SIMATIC NET Softnet IE PG driver (at least Softnet IE PG V3.1).
  • With CP1613 and CP1413 you need the products SIMATIC NET IE PG 1613 and SIMATIC NET IE PG1413 respectively.
  • For implementation of a TS Adapter:
  • TeleService S7 V5.0 or higher.
Hardware requirements:
  • You need routing-compatible modules. Refer to Entry ID 584459 for routing-compatible modules, or take them directly from the hardware catalog of the STEP 7 Hardware Configuration.

    Fig. 01

    You still need one of the Online CPs mentioned under "Software requirements" or the TS Adapter V5.0 or a PC Adapter V5.0.
  • The last module that is to be addressed via the routing function does not have to be routing-compatible.
  • If you wish to route via an S7 CPU which is configured as a PROFIBUS DP slave, you have to activate the "Test, Commissioning, Routing" option in the HWCONFIG > DP interface properties > "Operating Mode" tab. You can also find this information in the STEP7 Online Help ("Operating Mode" tab).
Configuration procedure:
You must configure all the stations that lie between the Start device and the target device in one STEP 7 project.

No. Procedure
1 Insert a station of the type "PG/PC".
Fig. 02
2 Configure all the physically available network connections (MPI, PROFIBUS, Industrial Ethernet) in NETPRO or in the HW Config. This also applies for networks that are not directly in the path, but are connected to the route stations. This does not mean that you must use all the interfaces available. You must only configure the communication connections that are also physically available.
Fig. 03
3 Open the Properties of the "PG/PC station" by double-clicking the PG/PC object.
4 Switch to the "Interfaces" tab and create a new node ("New" button). From the list that is displayed select the type of your node and acknowledge with "OK".
5 From the next window you select the network that is physically connected to your PG/PC. If you have not yet configured a network, then you must do it now.
Warning:The "PG/PC station" must be given the same address as set in the program "Set PG/PC interface" (also applies for CP 1413 and CP 1613).
6 Switch to the "Assignment" tab and assign the Routing entry point to your PG/PC.
First you select the node in the "Configured Interfaces:" pane and then in the second pane you specify the CP or the PC Adapter with the relevant network identification via which you want to go online.

Fig. 04
7 Save and compile your network configuration.
8 Transfer your configuration into the CPU.
9 Create an online connection via the offline project.
This cannot be done via "Accessible Nodes".

Sample configurations:

  • Routing with modem and TS Adapter

    Fig. 05
  • Routing with ISDN Router:

    Fig. 06
Text and Images Courtesy : 

Monday, April 21, 2014

Difference between "Source" and "Sink" inputs

Difference between "Source" and "Sink" inputs

There is a variety of terminologies for characterizing digital inputs and outputs;

Sinking Inputs  / Outputs - Most Common for SIEMENS Automation Systems

Sourcing Inputs  / Outputs - Used by some other manufacturers

Furthermore, you can characterize or order the digital inputs and outputs as follows:
  • the logical status
  • the electrical signal
  • the wiring and switching
The two tables below show the relationship between terminology and assignment:
Digital inputs (24V)

Terminology Logical status Electrical signal
P-lesend Sinking input
Switch is located between DC24V and the module
1 (true) 24V
Fig. 01
0 (false) 0V (or open)
M-lesend Sourcing input
Switch is located between the module and ground
1 (true) 0V
Fig. 02
0 (false) 24V (or open)
Table 01
Digital outputs (24V) 
Terminology Logical status Electrical signal
P-schaltend Sourcing output
PNP Transistor

Load located between the module and ground
1 (true) 24V
Fig. 03
0 (false) 0V (or open)
M-schaltend Sinking output
NPN Transistor

Load located between DC24V and the module
1 (true) 0V
Fig. 04
0 (false) 24V (or open)
Table 02 

In case of SIEMENS Automation Systems, all Inputs / Outputs are "Sinking" types unless Specifically mentioned. 

Sourcing type Input / Output modules are however also available for SIMATIC S7 -300, S7-400, S7-1200, S7-1500 PLCs and  ET200S , ET200M Remote I/Os

Monday, June 3, 2013

SIEMENS Automation License Manager - Info, Tips & Tricks

Automation License Manager is the essential Tool for Managing all SIEMENS Automation & Drives Authorisations and Licenses. Here is some useful information regarding using Automation License Manager and Troubleshooting Problems

1. What is the difference between authorizations and license keys?

License keys are the new authorizations as from STEP 7 V5.3. With the new license keys we are implementing a new concept in the licensing of SIMATIC software. Whereas the authorizations up to and including STEP 7 V5.2 were valid only for a specific version of the software, the license keys as from STEP 7 V5.3 are automatically also valid for the earlier versions of the same software. This validity however is restricted only to the programs that are licensed with the license keys. For programs licensed with an authorization only the authorization valid for the version continues to be valid.

Another new feature is that license keys can be stored on a network driver and can then be used by various computers (floating license). You can tell from the license number whether a program is protected by an authorization or by a license key. The license number is shown in the Automation License Manager (ALM). An authorization license number has ten digits, a license key license number has twenty digits.   Whereas there were earlier only authorizations and emergency authorizations, there are now the following different types of license keys.
License KeyMeaning
Single LicenseUnlimited use on any one computer.
Floating LicenseUnlimited use on any one computer or via the network.
Rental LicenseLimited use as stipulated in the rental contract.
Trial LicenseLimited use (max. 14 days) for tests and for validating (with disclaimer).
Upgrade LicenseAn Upgrade License converts a license for an earlier version x to a license for version >x+... .

Authorizations can only be saved and repaired on the original yellow or red floppy disks and installation is only possible on internal hard disk drives and partitions or network drives, but not on USB sticks. To ensure working with the associated software the authorization must be available locally on the hard disk on which the software is installed. Authorizations cannot be transferred via the Internet nor installed on USB hard disks.

license keys:
License keys cannot be restored on the floppy disks on which they were supplied, but can only be repaired on the PC/PG on which they are actually located. There is no longer an emergency authorization on floppy disk for license keys, because the software is always runnable if a valid license key has already been installed. So if there is a defective license key on the hard disk, working with the software is only interrupted at regular intervals with a message informing you that there is no valid license key available. As from ALM V1.1 SP1 you can also store license keys on USB sticks. A Trial License Key is installed from the CD. It can be activated via the actual SIMATIC application once for 14 days and is for evaluation purposes. You cannot restore or move the Trial License Key.

Software products that are released for utilization with license keys can also use newer license keys. However, if software products are released for utilization with authorizations, you need an authorization. This software products can then no longer be operated with a License Key (for a higher version). More information on this is also available in the Online Help of the Automation License Manager under

2. How to install, uninstall and upgrade license keys?

Installation of License Keys:
When installing STEP 7, the necessary license key is transferred automatically to the hard disk if the correct license key floppy disk is inserted. If the incorrect license key floppy disk or none at all is inserted, you are prompted with a relevant message to insert the correct license key floppy disk.  The table below describes the procedure for installing a license key.
1Please insert the corresponding license key floppy disk when you are prompted to do so when installing STEP 7.
2Then acknowledge the prompt. The license key is then transferred to a physical drive.
3If the license key is to be transferred later, you insert the license key floppy disk into the relevant disk drive and open the "Automation License Manager" program via the Windows Start menu
  • "Start > SIMATIC > License Management > Automation License Manager"
4Select the floppy disk drive on which your license keys are located.
5Select the license keys that you want to transfer and drag and drop them to the target drive. The license keys are then transferred accordingly. Note:
To transfer license keys you need all the access rights to the source and target drives.

Upgrade a license key or an "old authorization":

The Automation License Manager must be installed to upgrade a license key or an authorization. In addition, you must fulfill the following conditions for the relevant upgrades:
  1. For upgrading from an old license key to a new license key you need
  • The CoL (Certificate of License) and the license key of the older version.
  • The CoL (Certificate of License) and the upgrade license key of the target version.
  1. For upgrading from an old authorization to a new license key you need
  • The old authorization.
  • The CoL (Certificate of License) and the upgrade license key of the target version.
  1. For upgrading an old authorization to a new authorization (up to and including STEP 7 V5.2) you need
  • The old authorization.
  • The CoL (Certificate of License) and the upgrade authorization of the target version.
The following steps show you how to upgrade a license key and an authorization. The procedure is the same for license keys and authorizations. Only the license key will be referred to in the text.
1Select the view via the menu command "View > Manage".
2Transfer the license keys of the previous version and the upgrade license keys to the hard disk on which you wish to make the upgrade.
3Select the storage location in the navigation area where the license key to be upgraded is located (previous version).
4In the Object area you select the license key that is to be upgraded.
5Execute the menu command "License Key > Upgrade". The upgrade is now made.
If there is only one option for upgrading, then the upgrade is made without an other displays or prompts.
  • If other upgrade options are found, the "License Key Upgrade" dialog opens. Select the upgrade to be made and click on the "Upgrade" button.
Uninstallation of License Keys:

If a hard disk on which the license keys are located is to be formatted, please uninstall the license keys beforehand. The license keys are transferred back from the hard disk to the floppy disk. All the license keys of the options packages can also be transferred to this floppy disk.
1Insert the license key floppy disk into the relevant disk drive and open the "Automation License Manager" program via the Windows Start menu
  • "Start > SIMATIC > License Management > Automation License Manager"
2Select the drive on which your license keys are located.
3Select all the license keys and drag and drop them to the target drive. The license keys are then transferred accordingly.

You can also transfer the license keys to other hard disks or network drives.

3. How can you deactivate the Trial License when the message appears indicating that the Trial License has expired, although the Floating License has been installed?

Once activated the Trial License is valid for limited use up to a maximum of 14 days of the SIMATIC Software for tests, for example. If after expiry of this time you install a license for unlimited use (Single, Floating or Upgrade License) and after installation you still receive the message indicating that the Trial License has expired, we recommend deleting the Trial License in the "AX NF ZZ" folder.
No.Procedure for deleting a Trial License
1Open the ALM in MS Windows via
  • "Start > SIMATIC > License Management > Automation License Manager"
and mark the drive (e.g. "C") on which your licenses are installed. Displayed in the right window of the Automation License Manager is the table of the licenses installed. For viewing the licenses you need the file name (License Key) and the 20-digit license number. If these columns are not yet displayed, then via
  • "View > Define..."
you open the "Define View" dialog. In the bottom section of this dialog you select the "Columns" tab and then "License key" and "License number".
Fig. 01 Then you enter a name under "Edit view" and click the "Apply" button. Acknowledge with OK and the "License key" and "License number" columns appear in the Automation License Manager.
2In the Explorer you mark the "AX NF ZZ" directory on your hard disk or on drive "C", so that the file names of the licenses are displayed in the right window of the Explorer. If the "AX NF ZZ" directory or the files in that directory are not visible, then open the dialog "Tools > Folder options..." and select the "View" tab:
  • Here you deactivate the option "Hide protected operating files (Recommended)" and
  • Activate the option "Show hidden files and folders".
Then click on the "Apply" button and acknowledge with "OK".
Fig. 02 The "AX NF ZZ" directory is then displayed in the Explorer.
3Now in the Automation License Manager compare the file name (License Key) of the Trial License with the file name in the "AX NF ZZ" folder. Via the view set in the Automation License Manager you determine the file name for the Trial License to be deleted (Fig. 03) that you then find in the "AX NF ZZ" folder.
Fig. 03
4Mark the Trial License found in the "AX NF ZZ" directory and right-click. Then select "Delete" in the pop-up menu that opens. After deletion the message described above will no longer appear.

4. How can you open the Automation License Manager when the message "No connection to the License Key Handler" appears?

The table below describes how to proceed to disable the message described above so that you can open the ALM (Automation License Manager).
1Make sure that the following tasks have been started on your operating system:
  • Automation License Key Service
  • Server
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
For this you open the dialog "Services" in Microsoft Windows XP via "Start > Settings > Control Panel > Performance and Maintenance > Administration > Services" or in Windows 2000 via "Start > Settings > Control Panel > Administration > Services".
Fig. 01 Notes on the Windows XP and Windows 2000 operating systems:You get to the "Control Panel" menu
  • Via "Start > Control Panel" (in the Start menu for simplified access to the programs in Windows XP).
  • Via "Start > Settings > Control Panel" (for the classic Start menu as in earlier versions of Windows, e.g. Windows 2000).
In the Control Panel menu in Windows XP there are two different views, the Classic View and the Category View. If you select Category View, you have two options for opening the "Services" dialog:
  • First switch to the Classic View and there open the dialog "Services":
    "Switch to Classic View > Administrative Tools > Services"
  • or in the Category View open the dialog "Services":
    "Performance and Maintenance > Administration > Services".
2You can use the "Start" link to start the tasks described above if they have not yet been started. If the "Automation License Key Service" - as in Fig. 01 - doesn't start, check the Windows event display. For this you open the "Event Viewer" dialog in Microsoft Windows XP via "Start > Settings > Control Panel > Performance and Maintenance > Administrative Tools > Event Viewer" or in Windows 2000 via "Start > Settings > Control Panel > Administration > Event Viewer".
Fig. 02
3If the error code 0X8007007F appears in the Application protocol of the Event Viewer - as in Fig. 02 - we recommend that you install the Component Checker to check the available version of the (Microsoft Data Access Components) on your PC:  More information on the Microsoft Component Checker is available in the download above. After installing the Component Checker please proceed as follows.
4Start the Component Checker with the application "cc.exe" and in the dialog that opens you select "Perform analysis of your machine and automatically determine the release version". Then acknowledge with "OK".
Fig. 03
5In the "Choose Analysis Type" you then select "Perform analysis against a selected version".
Fig. 04
6If MDAC is correctly installed and registered there is a MATCH for all three points "File Details", "COM Details" and "Registry Details". If there is a MISMATCH, then MDAC (Microsoft Data Access Component) is not correctly installed or registered.
Fig. 05
7We recommend that you install the following Microsoft update on your PC/PG: The behavior is cleared upon installation of MDAC Update RTM version V2.8. You can then start the Automation License Key Service. Note:
If the message "No connection to the License Key Handler" appears and the Windows Event Viewer shows the error code "0X8004005", the database might be defective.

Fig. 06
8Please proceed as follows in the case of the error message shown in Fig. 06.
  • Uninstall the ALM (Automation License Manager).
  • Delete the file "almdb.mdb".
  • Reinstall the ALM.

Sunday, July 22, 2012

FO Cable Port and Connector Types

Various different types of connectors are used for terminating the Fibers of Fiber-Optic (FO) cables. 

Here is a description of various standard Port / Connector types which are commonly used for terminating the FO cables. :

1. BFOC (ST ) Connectors
BFOC ( Bayonet Fiber Optic Connectors ) - Polularly known as ST ( Stick & Twist ) connectors are used for many devices e.g. Profibus Optical Link Modules OLMs and SCALANCE X100 and X200 series of switches.
Fig-1 - BFOC (ST) - Socket & Connector

2. SC Connectors

SC connectors are standard connectors for fiber optic cables. The SC connector is usually found in the duplex version, but can be used as a simplex connector by disconnecting it from the separator bar.  

Fig-2 - SC  - Socket & Connector
3. SC RJ Connectors

SC RJ45 is the smallest SC duplex plug-in connector. These are used in many new devices.
The overall size of the Sockets is about the same size as Ethernet RJ45 Ports. These are commonly used in devices with replacable / selectable ports.

Fig-2 - SC (RJ45) - Socket & Connector

4. LC Connectors

 LC connectors are highly compact "small form factor" (SFF) connectors of the new generation. The connector is available as a duplex version and is locked by the push/pull mechanism. They are used above all for connecting to SFP plug-in transceivers.

Fig-2 - LC - Socket & Connector


Different Types of Fiber Optic cables

The following fiber optic cables are available for Industrial Ethernet:
  • Glass fiber optic cable
  • PCF FO (Polymer Cladded Fiber)
  • POF FO (Polymer Optical Fiber)
The following fiber optic cables are available for PROFIBUS:
  • Glass fiber optic cable
  • PCF FO (Polymer Cladded Fiber)
  • Plastic FO
The table below gives you an overview of the connectors for connecting the above-mentioned fiber optic cables to the optical connections of the network components and terminals.

How to access a Password Protected S7-200 CPU

 !! Important Note !!  
It is always recommended to keep a copy of the program available on a data medium.
Moreover, the comments of the program are only available in the Offline-Project and are not loaded into the CPU.
There is NO possibility for the user, to read a program of a password-protected CPU with protection level 3 or to modify its program - without having the knowledge about the password.

Even if the CPU is furnished with a password protection, the followung  CPUFunctions can be executed  without any limitation :
  •  Start, Stopp and Restart of the CPU 
  • - Reading and setting the real-time

If the password entered in the CPU is unknown, a memory reset of the CPU has to be conducted and the program has to be reloaded into the CPU. During the memory reset, the net address, baudrate, realtime and - if existing - the program in the memory submodule are not modified.
To Execute CPU Memory Reset, please proceed as follows:
  • Select "Target system > memory reset".
  • Afterwards, select all three block types to be cleared and confirm it with "OK".

Fig. 1: Selecting blocks to be cleared
  • Enter "CLEARPLC" in the dialog window.
Fig. 2: Entry of the password in order to clear

  1. An additional possibility to reset the CPU is provided by the program "Wipeout.exe". This program is located on the Installation-CD of STEP7-Micro/WIN.
  2. On the contrary to the reset via STEP7-Micro/WIN, the program "Wipeout.exe" does not only delete the user program, the data block and the configuration information, but also the baudrate is reset to 9,6 kbit/s and the netaddress is reset to address 2. The CPU is reset into the pristine status of supply.
  3. Alternatively, the memory submodule can also be plugged with another unprotected program into the CPU. When reswitching the voltage, this program is loaded into the CPU and overwrites the program with the unknown password. Afterwards, the access to the CPU is possible.

Monday, July 16, 2012

How to Format or Reset an MMC (Micro Memory Card) for SIMATIC S7-300 CPUs?

!! Important Information !!
It is not possible for users to format a SIMATIC Micro Memory Card (MMC).
All you can do is "reset" an MMC, which deletes all user data.

!!! Caution !!!
Do not use the MMC for non-SIMATIC purposes and do not format it with a third-party device ( e.g. using a PC/Laptop MMC Reader. This would possibly overwrite the internal structure of the MMC that cannot be restored. In this case, the MMC is no longer recognized/accepted in a SIMATIC S7-300 CPU and can no longer be used with SIMATIC devices.

1. Resetting a MMC Card using a S7-300:

It is only possible to reset the MMC if it contains data that is invalid for the CPU ( for example, if the data stored is for a different type of CPU).  Otherwise the MMC is only initialized by the procedure described.
All the user data is deleted when you reset the SIMATIC Micro Memory Card (MMC). Proceed as follows.
  1. Power Off the S7-300 CPU and Insert the MMC into the MMC Slot.
  2. Power ON the CPU
  3. If the CPU displays slow blinking of the STOP LED then it is not able to read the MMC and is requesting an overall reset.
  4. Set the switch to "MRES" and hold it there until the STOP LED lights continuously (approx. 9 seconds).
  5. Within the next 3 seconds, you must let the switch go and set it again to "MRES". The STOP LED now blinks during the delete procedure.
If the CPU continues to request an overall reset after the procedure described above, then the MMC is defective.
2. Resetting a MMC Card using a PG/PC:

The SIMATIC Micro Memory Cards (MMCs) of the S7-300 may be read or written only by the following devices outside the CPU:
  • SIMATIC Field PG
  • SIMATIC Power PG
  • USB prommer (order number 6ES7792-0AA00-0XA0).
Using these devices, you can open an MMC in the SIMATIC

Fig-1 : How to Delete MMC Contents using a SIMATIC PG / USB Prommer